Article Review: Wearable Writing Enriching Student Peer Review With Point-of-View Video Feedback Using Google Glass.

Note: I had written the following article review as part of my Annotated Bibliography project during my graduate program.

Tham, J. C. K. (2016). Wearable Writing Enriching Student Peer Review With Point-of-View Video Feedback Using Google Glass. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 0047281616641923.

Tham’s article discusses a case study of using Google Glass in student peer review sessions. The article also discusses the benefits, challenges, and recommendations of incorporating the process in technical communication courses.

Tham presents an extensive overview of wearable technology and student peer review sessions. He then elaborates on his research methodology of participatory design. In participatory design research, the participants collaborate with the researcher to study the research topic. The study was conducted in three stages. In the first stage, Tham introduced the students to the concept of peer reviews using Google Glass and conducted a device orientation workshop. In the second stage, Tham collaborated with the students to determine the evaluation metrics for the study. In the third phase, Tham and the students used Google Glass to conduct four peer reviews. The first two peer reviews were experimental and the next two reviews were evaluative.

The data collected was triangulated: the data included the students’ narratives, exit survey responses, and Tham’s observations. Using Google Glass, students could track comments and editing suggestions through video recordings. Reviewers may indicate places in writing where revisions are recommended by snapping a picture or recording the suggestions in video. These images and videos could be sent to the respective writers after the review session. With Google Glass, the focus of review shifted from written critiques to spoken comments. Students would employ the think-aloud protocol when reviewing their peers’ drafts.

The students had mixed responses to the exercise. Students appreciated the first-person perspective video feedback helped them understand the reviewer’s thought process while providing feedback. They also found the feedback to be more detailed than written comments. But they found wearing the device physically uncomfortable, reported being distracted by their classmates’ simultaneously talking into their own devices, and felt unsure if they were doing the process right.

On analyzing the students’ responses and his own observations, Tham summarized that the use of Google Glass for student peer review sessions led to personable, unfiltered feedback, provided verbal and visual channels in reviewing, and captured the reviewer’s emotion. Tham also identified the potential challenges to implementing the process as procuring the wearables, connectivity and file sharing issues, technical and financial support, and getting familiar with the technology.

The study is a qualitative developmental study. It has credibility because the students could freely share their opinions, and Tham relied on his observations and not just the students’ self-reports. The study also has transferability because it was conducted in a real-world classroom scenario. Tham shares his course material with the audience, thereby providing material to replicate the study.

Article Review: Academics Are from Mars, Practitioners are from Venus: Analyzing Content Alignment within Technical Communication Forums

Note: I had written the following article review as part of my Annotated Bibliography project during my graduate program.

Boettger, R. K., & Friess, E. (2016). Academics Are from Mars, Practitioners Are from Venus:Analyzing Content Alignment within Technical Communication Forums. Technical Communication63(4), 314-327.

Boettger and Friess’ article investigates the content misalignment in the technical communication publications for academics and practitioners. In this empirical study, the authors conducted a quantitative content analysis of 1048 articles published in four leading technical communication journals and one published magazine over a period of 20 years. The study confirmed the disconnect between the academic and practicing communities and helped the authors formulate recommendations to bridge the disconnect.

The authors sought to understand how is content broadly classified across the publications, what primary content areas do the publications address, and who are the primary audiences for the publications. The authors selected the four leading publications (JBTC, TC, TCQ, and TPC) based on previous studies which found these publications to be the leading publications in technical communication. They selected Intercom as the longest published magazine in technical communication. Because Intercom has been published as a magazine since 1996, the authors selected January 1996 as the starting time for the time period of analysis. They analyzed the articles from 1996 to 2015, when this study was published. The authors populated the 3605 articles published in all five publications in the 20-year timeframe in an Excel sheet and used a random number generator software to randomly select 30% of the total articles.

The authors coded the 1048 articles for four content variables: forum, broad topic, primary topic, and primary audience. Over six norming sessions, three raters used an independent sample of articles to test and refine the coding categories. Then over 10 coding sessions, three raters coded the sample set of 1048 articles. Inter-rater reliability was calculated with Krippendorff’s alpha coefficient. The results of the agreement were: forum (100%), broad topic (80.2%), primary topic (82%), and primary audience (76%).

The authors analyzed the data through descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis (CA). CA is a geometric technique used to analyze two-way and multi-way tables containing some measure of correspondence between the rows and columns. CA reveals patterns in complex data and provides output that can help researchers interpret these patterns.

Based on the analysis, the following results were obtained: Intercom published more process-oriented articles, whereas the journals published more education-oriented articles. There was a strong association between the following forum and broad topic: Intercom and profession, TCQ and education, and TC and product. As for primary content, professionalization and technology content areas were prominent in Intercom, whereas content on pedagogy, rhetoric, assessment, comprehension, and design were prominent in the journals. Rhetoric as a topic was identified only in journals. A strong association was found between the following forum and primary topic: Again, Intercom with professionalization, TCQ with rhetoric, and TPC with pedagogy. With respect to the primary audience, the primary audience for the journals were academics and managers, while for Intercom, the primary audience was writers, content developers, managers, and so on. There was a strong association between the following forum and primary audience: Intercom and writer/content developer, JBTC and TCQ with academic, and TC and manager.

Based on the results, the authors verified the disconnect between the publications and recommended remedies to bridge the disconnect. They recommend unifying the existing forums, identifying new audiences, and involving practitioners in technical communication research.

The main question about the study is the premise that the content forums for technical communicators need to be unified. As we learned in the History of Technical Communication course, the different publications were started to serve different audiences and meet their varied requirements. Unifying the forums would defy the original purpose of the publications. Another concern is the publications excluded from the study. Not all academics and especially practitioners read the publications studied in this article. In today’s Internet age, popular online blogs such as I’d rather be writing and ffeathers need to be considered to ensure maximum readership is accounted for.

Technical Communication Journals and Publications

Before I started my graduate program in Technical Communication, I had no idea about the immense wealth of knowledge that are the Tech Comm publications. This post provides information about the Tech Comm journals and publications that helped me in my graduate program as well as thesis. Following are peer-reviewed quarterly journals published in the field of technical communication:

Technical Communication (Published by STC)

Technical Communication Quarterly (Published by ATTW)

IEEE Transactions in Professional Communication (Published by the Professional Communication Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))

Journal of Business and Technical Communication

Journal of Technical Writing and Communication

In the upcoming blog posts, I will review articles from these journals to give you an idea of the type of articles published in the academic tech comm world.


Technical Communication Conferences and Communities

One of the benefits of being a part of the academic as well as practicing circles of Technical Communication is that I can participate in conferences and communities in both domains. This post lists the conferences and communities that I find useful:

For Practitioners

Online Communities


  • STC India
  • WriteTheDocs Portland
  • STC meetups in the Bay Area
  • tcworld

For Academicians

Online Communities

  • WomenInTC Slack and Twitter
  • ATTW mailing list
  • CPTSC mailing list


  • ATTW conference
  • CPTSC conference
  • GPACW conference
  • STC regional conferences (I attended two: one in Springfield and another in Missouri State University)

Update: Came across this incredible list of conferences. Check it out!

The Academic Life in Tech Comm

Since I published the Frequently Asked Questions blog post, I have received several questions about what the academic life in Technical Communication looks like. Instead of me answering the question from my limited perspective and experience, I thought it best to share resources that give some insight into the academic life in Tech Comm:

Life at a Teaching School by Ashley Patriarca (@aspatriarca)

Reflections on Finishing a Technical Communication Graduate Program by Fer O’Neil

Expertise and Service by Michele Simmons and Pat Sullivan

Strategies for Writing Every Day by Kristen Moore

A Preview of the Luncheon, Sort Of by Lisa Meloncon

Masters in Technical Communication: Frequently Asked Questions

Last Monday, I asked you to send me your questions about pursuing a Masters in Technical Communication in the United States. Thank you for the incredible response to the blog post. Following is my attempt to collate and answer the frequently asked questions from my limited perspective as an International student in Missouri S&T’s Tech Comm grad program. Let’s start with the most repeated question:

Job prospects after graduation?

As an international student, if you are looking for a conventional, user documentation-oriented tech writing job, the prospects are quite dim. Think about it from the US companies’ perspective – they have access to native English speakers who they can hire without any visa hassles. Why would they hire us (non-native English speakers) who have just one year of work authorization after graduation? It does not make business sense. Also, to be fair, they need to give preference to their citizens, just like we would want to have preference in our home countries.

The goal of pursuing a Masters degree, not only in Technical Communication, but in general, needs to be reconsidered. The conventional reason for completing a Masters degree as a pathway to a job in the US and earning in dollars is becoming irrelevant by the day. Yes, it is still possible, but in different ways than before. The industry is maturing and is becoming very specific in its requirements. It is also branching out at an astounding rate.

So let’s reframe the question: Which skills and experiences can help me become a valuable contributor to an organization so that they find it worthwhile to invest in me and take a chance on me? Now that’s a better question.

Here’s how me and my coursemates tried to answer it:

  • Over the course of my career, I developed expertise in the niche and deeply-technical domain of software architecture documents. I proactively sought out challenging technical communication positions, especially at startups,  and built a strong portfolio around it. I maintained my interest in the changing technological landscape by contributing to open source projects and participating in on-campus engineering projects. And I never burned any bridges – the professional rapport and reputation I developed at Druva while working in Pune led to a summer internship in our California campus. And that internship prepared me for my current position at Cockroach Labs in New York. So my answer to the question of how to become a valuable member of an organization: Find your niche and develop expertise in it.
  • One of my coursemates leveraged the teaching assistantship experience into the position of a Technical Writing Instructor at another university.
  • Two of my acquaintances at other universities have enrolled in Ph.D. programs in Tech Comm. The academic positions in technical communication are competitive, yet highly viable.
  • I have met international students who have leveraged their academic careers into opportunities in allied fields such as usability and accessibility, human-computer interaction, international communication, medical and scientific communication, wearable tech comm, VR comm, and so on.

What about campus placements?

In my experience, campus placements are non-existent for technical communication students – especially international students. Don’t rely on campus placements.

What are the living costs of pursuing a Masters degree in the US?

The cost of pursuing a degree in the United States varies drastically depending on the location of the university, financial assistance you get from the university, and the program you choose.

The university I went to – Missouri S&T – is located in a small university town called Rolla, which is at a two-hour drive from the nearest city (St. Louis). It is a quiet little town with not much to do, but my living expenses were a fraction of my friends’ expenses who lived in major cities like Chicago and New York. I had comfortable accommodation in a shared house where I had my own room and bathroom, and it cost me $750 per month. Add to that groceries, utilities, internet, etc. and my total monthly expenses figured around $1250. I got paid $1600 per month as stipend for being a Teaching Assistant.

I would recommend going to university in a small town to keep the cost low, and move to a big city for work after you graduate.

Can I do part-time job outside of the college campus? If yes, how many hours per week can I work?

Not in the first year. In the second year, you can do a part-time internship for up to 20 hours per week. But that has to be related to your field.

Is it worth doing an online degree?

Yes, if your company pays for it. For instance, back when I was working at Symantec, they had a policy of funding a major chunk of an online degree. If your company provides similar benefits, definitely consider taking advantage of them.

Is it worth taking out a student loan for a Masters degree?

No. Absolutely not. I would not recommend taking out an education loan for any degree, not just a Tech Comm degree. But good Tech Comm grad programs do have financial assistance available, so if you get decent funding, then I would highly recommend pursuing a Masters degree.

Changing fields and moving to tech writing: Is the degree worth it? Am I eligible?

I think so. None of my coursemates had any background in technical writing. They all came from different backgrounds: HR, English, BioScience, to name a few. They chose the degree because they wanted to move into a practical, job-fetching field. And they found their own paths after earning their Masters. So I have seen it done, but it will be up to you to figure out how to make the most of your degree.

What about the scary political climate?

If you are on social media or listen to the news, the current political climate in the US definitely sounds scary. But in my experience, it does not affect my everyday life. The people in my life – be it in Missouri, California, or New York – are the kindest and most welcoming people I have ever met. Yes, there’s racism and sexism, but it’s similar to the casteism and economic discrimination in India. The upheaval you hear about now is not unlike the upheaval we experienced in our previous election. This is democracy in action, and many good people are fighting the good fight. Don’t let the news and fear-mongering scare you away from experiencing a vibrant and evolving culture.

To summarize my thoughts:

  • Pursue a Masters degree in Technical Communication after you have considerable experience in the field already. Find out if you really like the field, which parts of it do you like the most, and build your expertise in those areas. Then seek a degree that helps you specialize in those areas.
  • Secure scholarship and financial assistance at an accredited university.
  • Be open to opportunities and allied fields that you might not have even heard of till you enter the academic circles of tech comm – I certainly hadn’t! Consider fields like communication in medical sciences, or usability and accessibility, or data science. Or consider an academic career (definitely on my horizon).
  • Your goal should be to step out of the comfort zone, experience living in a different culture and country, contribute to projects you deeply care about, and open your mind to global issues and perspectives.
  • At any point in time, be ready to go back to your home country – and be grateful we have a safe and welcoming country to go back to. Everyone’s not that blessed. (Side note: Volunteer or donate to organizations that work with refugees. We all need to help in any way possible).

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Masters in Technical Communication: Ask Me Anything

Since I started the Masters in Technical Communication series, I have had repeat questions about campus placements, if the tech comm grad degree is worth the investment, will the degree help me switch fields, and so on.

I think these are important questions and should be answered publicly. So I am planning a Frequently Asked Questions post to be published on February 12th. If you have a question you would like to have answered, submit your question here:

Masters in Technical Communication: Graduate Teaching Assistantship at the Missouri S&T program

This blog post gives you a peek into the life of a Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) in the Technical Communication graduate program at Missouri S&T.

The Graduate Teaching Assistantship comes with financial benefits. In my first year, the out-of-state fees were waived and I had to pay partial fees for in-state tuition. I was also paid a stipend. In the second year, all the fees were waived. Such a blessing!

A Graduate Teaching Assistantship usually involves conducting labs and assisting a professor with grading, and so on. However, in the Technical Communication program at Missouri S&T, being a GTA means that every semester, you teach a section of the technical writing service course. Each section has 20 undergraduate students. As the GTA, you are responsible for the section for the entire semester – right from writing the course syllabus (based on a syllabus designed by Dr. Northcut), teaching the class, planning the assignments, designing the grading rubrics, grading the assignments, taking attendance, raising academic flags – the whole deal. You are the instructor-of-record for the section. It was the highlight of my experience as a grad student.

The GTA program is driven by Dr. Northcut. My GTA program started with a full-day GTA Orientation on the Friday before the first semester started. During our orientation, Dr. Northcut discussed essential things like FERPA, academic flags, health and support resources for our students, and so on. I had no clue being an instructor involved so many crucial responsibilities! She also taught us about dailies (daily lesson plans), taking useful peer observation notes, handling difficult students, and so on. It was a deeply informative and slightly intimidating session.

For the first semester, my fellow GTAs and I observed Ms. Roberson’s class. We attended each of the lectures, completed the assignments, and took copious observation notes. Each of the GTAs taught one topic – to help us get a feel for teaching a class and getting feedback about our teaching styles from each other and Ms. Roberson.

At the start of the second semester, we took the SPEAK test (similar to the speaking section of the TOEFL exam) and gave a mock lecture to a panel of students and instructors. Only if you pass the tests are you allowed to teach as a GTA. Thankfully, I passed 🙂 The second semester onwards, each of the GTAs taught a section of the undergraduate course in technical writing. It was an exciting and nerve-wracking experience. My students of all three semesters were co-operative, understanding, and brilliant. They appreciated my industry experience and engineering background, which sparked interesting discussions about how things work in the real-world job situations. All our assignments were geared towards real-world scenarios instead of hypothetical ones. I learned from them as much as they learned from me.

We also had hour-long weekly GTA meetings, where Dr. Northcut provided a platform for the GTAs to share and learn from our fellow instructors. In each meeting, all GTAs individually shared how we were planning to approach the upcoming assignment, and Dr. Northcut, Ms. Roberson, and the senior GTAs used their experience to corroborate our approaches or point out the possible problems we could run into. If we had difficult students or situations that were beyond our purview, we informed Dr. Northcut and she would handle it for us. We also had grade-norming sessions, wherein all of us graded a set of assignments individually, followed by a discussion of why we graded the way we did. This helped us normalize our grading across sections. We attended the meetings all through the two years of the graduate program.

I did not realize the value of the training until I interacted with faculty from other universities at the ATTW and CPTSC conferences. That was when I realized that Dr. Northcut had set us up for successful academic careers, and I am so thankful to her for it.

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Masters in Technical Communication: Program at Missouri S&T

So far in this series, we have covered the general information about graduate programs in Technical Communication (TC). This blog post discusses the program details and my experience at Missouri S&T.

Missouri S&T is located in Rolla, a university town at a 2-hour drive from St. Louis. The MS in Technical Communication program is offered by the Department of English and Technical Communication, which resides in the Humanities and Social Sciences building. I enrolled in the program in August 2015 and graduated in May 2017 and took the following courses:

First semester:

  • Advanced Proposal Writing
  • Advanced International Communication
  • History of Technical Communication

Second semester:

  • Advanced Visual Communication
  • Web-Based Communication
  • Technical Editing

Third semester:

  • Help Authoring
  • Teaching Technical Communication
  • Research Methods in Technical Communication

Fourth semester:

  • Usability Studies
  • Thesis credits

My thesis topic was “Knowledge Management at Startups”. At the time, I was interning at Druva’s California office and was working on the Customer Education and Engineering documentation initiatives at the company. I conducted an auto-ethnographic research on how knowledge is captured, communicated, and managed at a startup. In place of doing a Master’s thesis, I had the option of taking two additional courses and taking a comprehensive exam. I chose the thesis route, and am so glad I did!

The courses were taught by three professors: Dr. Northcut, Dr. Wright, and Dr. Malone. Each professor brings their expertise and peculiarities to the classroom. My life is so much richer for having known my professors and learned from them.

Observing Dr. Northcut taught me how to be a professional, yet a empathetic human being. She has high expectations from her students, and leaves no stone unturned to help her students reach their maximum potential. Her drive and discipline might seem jarring at first, but as I got to know her, I saw the tremendous faith she has in us, and that just made me want to meet her expectations every time. I am a stronger woman and a better professional because of her.

Dr. Malone made me into a better writer. My undergraduate background is in engineering – I never had a formal writing education. Dr. Malone helped me overcome the lack of a formal writing education. I am in awe of his technical editing skills and attention to detail. He helped me understand the “whys” behind all the technical writing adages: Why we don’t say “please” and “you might” in technical writing, why localizing for an American audience is different than writing for an Asian audience, why use plain language, and so on (Hint: The answer to all questions lies in the theories of international communication).

Dr. Wright helped me lead a balanced, mentally stable life as a graduate student. He was my academic advisor, and later took on the role of my thesis advisor as well. His unwavering support and encouragement saw me through the stressful job-search process, navigating the Master’s thesis procedures, and just the general anxiety of living in a foreign country.

I genuinely believe the TC graduate program at Missouri S&T is a well-crafted and well-executed program that balances preparing students for TC jobs while also preparing them for an academic career. You get a real taste of the life of an academician if you are a Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) under the tutelage of Dr. Northcut. For me, being a GTA has been the most significant experience at Missouri S&T that opened up a whole new career path for me. In the next post, we will deep-dive into the Graduate Teaching Assistantship program. Stay tuned!

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Masters in Technical Communication: How to apply to universities

In the previous post, we discussed how to choose a graduate program. This post discusses how to apply to Technical Communication (TC) graduate programs in the United States.

A seminal resource to study when applying for TC graduate programs is Dr. Angela Eaton’s article. In this article, Dr. Eaton rightly points out why the generic advice about applying to grad schools is so unsuitable for TC grad programs. She then discusses the behind-the-scenes action of how TC application review committees evaluate and select candidates for the graduate programs. She describes the application materials in detail and how to explain any weaknesses in your application.

Dr. Eaton’s advice is particularly helpful for non-US applicants, who might not be aware of the cultural and contextual expectations in graduate applications. I sure wasn’t aware of the expectations. This article proved eye-opening for me. For instance, as an Indian student, I was prone towards opening my Statement of Purpose with a quote or a childhood memory, which is considered a curt no-no in the US academic system. I can’t stress enough how important this article is. Before preparing your application materials, study this article thoroughly. Print it out, annotate it, follow her advice religiously.

In addition to Dr. Eaton’s article, I want to point out the additional steps international students have to undertake before and after applying to TC grad programs in the United States:


In the Indian education system, we are given marksheets after we pass an exam. I was under the impression that marksheets are the same as transcripts – but that’s not true. I had to request University of Pune to issue my official transcripts – and the process is supposed to take up to 60 days! Thankfully, I got my transcripts in time. Lesson learned: Request your official transcripts well in advance.

Snail Mail:

Most universities require that you send your application materials by actual, physical mail. Make sure you mail the application materials in advance and keep a time buffer to account for international shipping.

Student Visa (F1 Visa):

Once you are admitted into the TC grad program, the university will issue your I-20, which is one of the key documents required to apply for the student visa. This document will be mailed physically to you, so while scheduling your visa interview, ensure you will have received your I-20 by then. The student visa application process is same as that of other majors. The official US Travel site <> has all the information required for the process.

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